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Toxin Mediated Diarrhea in the 21st Century: The Pathophysiology of Intestinal Ion Transport in the Course of ETEC, V. cholerae and Rotavirus Infection

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Author(s): Sascha Kopic | John P. Geibel

Journal: Toxins
ISSN 2072-6651

Volume: 2;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 2132;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: cholera | enterotoxigenic E. coli | enterotoxin | NSP4 | STa | LT-I

ABSTRACT
An estimated 4 billion episodes of diarrhea occur each year. As a result, 2–3 million children and 0.5–1 million adults succumb to the consequences of this major healthcare concern. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to toxin mediated diarrhea by infectious agents, such as E. coli, V. cholerae or Rotavirus. Our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying these infectious diseases has notably improved over the last years. This review will focus on the cellular mechanism of action of the most common enterotoxins and the latest specific therapeutic approaches that have been developed to contain their lethal effects.
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