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Periodontal conditions, oral Candida albicans and salivary proteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with emphasis on gender

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Author(s): Javed Fawad | Klingspor Lena | Sundin Ulf | Altamash Mohammad | Klinge Björn | Engström Per-Erik

Journal: BMC Oral Health
ISSN 1472-6831

Volume: 9;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 12;
Date: 2009;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background The association between periodontal conditions, oral yeast colonisation and salivary proteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not yet documented. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables in type 2 diabetic subjects with reference to gender. Methods Fifty-eight type 2 diabetic subjects (23 males and 35 females) with random blood glucose level ≥ 11.1 mmol/L were investigated. Periodontal conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PD] (4 to 6 mm and ≥ 6 mm), oral yeasts, salivary immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG and total protein concentrations, and number of present teeth were determined. Results Periodontal conditions (PI [p < 0.00001], BOP [p < 0.01] and PD of 4 to 6 mm [p < 0.001], salivary IgG (μg)/mg protein (p < 0.001) and salivary total protein concentrations (p < 0.05) were higher in type 2 diabetic females with Candida albicans (C. albicans) colonisation compared to males in the same group. Type 2 diabetic females with C. albicans colonisation had more teeth compared to males in the same group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Clinical and salivary parameters of periodontal inflammation (BOP and IgG (μg)/mg protein) were higher in type 2 diabetic females with oral C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the association of gender with these variables in subjects with T2D.
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