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Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells

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Author(s): Christelle Basset | Fatou Thiam | Cyrille Di Martino | John Holton | John D. Clements | Evelyne Kohli

Journal: Toxins
ISSN 2072-6651

Volume: 2;
Issue: 7;
Start page: 1774;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: cholera-like enterotoxins | regulatory T cells | cholera toxin | heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli | CTB | LTB

ABSTRACT
Cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT), as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants). These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins have adjuvant properties, the B subunits of CT (CTB) and of LT (LTB) have been shown to induce antigen specific tolerance when administered mucosally with antigens in experimental models as well as, recently, in humans, making them an attractive strategy to prevent or treat autoimmune or allergic disorders. Immunomodulation is a complex process involving many cell types notably antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we focus on Treg cells and cholera-like enterotoxins and their non toxic derivates, with regard to subtype, in vivo/in vitro effects and possible role in the modulation of immune responses to coadministered antigens.
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