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Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics

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Author(s): Jieru E. Lin | Michael Valentino | Glen Marszalowicz | Michael S. Magee | Peng Li | Adam E. Snook | Brian A. Stoecker | Chang Chang | Scott A. Waldman

Journal: Toxins
ISSN 2072-6651

Volume: 2;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 2028;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) | guanylyl cyclase C | guanylin | uroguanylin | colorectal cancer | hormone insufficiency | hormone replacement therapy | tumor vaccine | irritable bowel syndrome | biomarker | targeted delivery

ABSTRACT
Heat-stable toxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria cause endemic and traveler’s diarrhea by binding to and activating the intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Advances in understanding the biology of GC-C have extended ST from a diarrheagenic peptide to a novel therapeutic agent. Here, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological role of GC-C in fluid-electrolyte regulation and intestinal crypt-villus homeostasis, as well as describe translational opportunities offered by STs, reflecting the unique characteristics of GC-C, in treating irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, and in preventing and treating colorectal cancer.